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مقاله آموزش زبان(استفاده از مواد آموزشی،كلاسهای انگلیسی)در 165 صفحه ورد قابل ویرایش

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مقاله آموزش زبان(استفاده از مواد آموزشی،كلاسهای انگلیسی)در 165 صفحه ورد قابل ویرایش

 

Table of Contents

 

Acknowledgement                                                                                      X                         

 

Abstract                                                                                                      XI                        

 

List of Tables                                                                                              XII   

 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction                                         1

 

 

1.1                 Overview                                                                                       1

1.2                 Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study                5

1.3                 Significance and Justification of the Study                               6

1.4                 Research Questions                                                                      7

1.5                 Research Hypotheses                                                                   8

1.6                 What Is Known About Listening                                                8

1.7                 What Is Known About Authentic Materials                              10

1.8                 Definition of Important Terms                                                    12

1.9                 Delimitations                                                                                13

1.10           Limitations                                                                                    14

1.11           Organization of the Master Thesis                                              14

Chapter 2: Review of Literature                            15

 

2.1           Introduction                                                                                    15

2.2           Listening Comprehension                                                              15

2.2.1     Definition of Listening                                                     15

2.2.2     Importance of Listening                                                   17    

                      2.2.2.1     Listening and Academic Success                     18

                      2.2.2.2     Discovery Listening                                          18

         2.2.3     Listening as an Academic Process                                    20

                      2.2.3.1     Knowledge Required for Listening                  20

                                      Process

2.2.4      Listening Comprehension versus Reading                    21

Comprehension

2.2.5      Listening Comprehension                                               23

2.2.5.1     Authentic and Listening                                 23

                Comprehension

2.2.5.2             Different Kinds of Comprehension              24

2.2.5.3             Comprehension Preceding Production         25

          2.2.6     Tasks for Listening Comprehension                               25

                       2.2.6.1     Performing to Indicate Understanding           27    

                       2.2.6.2     Teaching rather than Testing                           28

          2.2.7     Inner Speech and Language Learning                             29

                       2.2.7.1     Listening and Speaking                                    29

           2.2.8     Maturation and Language Learning                               30

                        2.2.8.1     Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal                        31

                                         Development

2.2.9              The Role of Background Knowledge in                       32

Learning Language

2.2.9.1     Schema Theory                                              32

2.2.9.2     Background Knowledge/Prior                      33

                 Knowledge

           2.2.10    Cultural Background                                                      35

2.3      Listening and English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learning           36

           2.3.1      The Emergency of Communicative Language             36

                         Teaching

2.3.2                Communicative Approach: Some Principles              38

and Features

2.4      The Use of Aural Authentic Materials                                        40

           2.4.1      Definitions of Authentic Materials                               40

           2.4.2      Authentic Materials and Language Performance         41

           2.4.3      Nature of Authentic Texts                                             43

                         2.4.3.1     Characteristics of Authentic Speech             43

                         2.4.3.2     Authentic Speech and Cultural Aspect         44

 

 

 

   Chapter 3: Methodology                                      46

 

 

3.1             Introduction                                                                                   46

3.2             Summary of the Study                                                                  46

3.2.1     Participants                                                                       48

3.2.2     Classroom Observation                                                   49    

3.3     Demographic Data of the Students                                               50

3.4     Classroom Environment                                                               52

          3.4.1     Setting                                                                                52

3.5     Classroom Practices                                                                       52

          3.5.1     Listening Materials Implemented in Class                     52

          3.5.2     Class Procedure                                                                53

3.6     Teacher’s Pedagogy                                                                       54

3.7     Interviews                                                                                       55

          3.7.1     Interviews with Students                                                 56

                       3.7.1.1     First Interview                                                  56

                       3.7.1.2     Second Interview                                              56

3.8     Self-Evaluation Questionnaire                                                     57

3.9     Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire                                 58    

3.10   Data Collection                                                                              59

3.11   Analysis of Data                                                                            60

3.12   Validity and Reliability                                                                63

Chapter 4: Results                                                   64

 

4.1             Introduction                                                                                   64

4.2             Summary of the Study                                                                  64

4.3             Results of the Study                                                                      65

4.3.1     Results for Fundamental Research Question:                66

             Influences of Aural Authentic Materials

             4.3.1.1     Results from the Interviews with Students    67

             4.3.1.2     Results from the Class Observation               69

             4.3.1.3     Results from the Self-Evaluation                   71

                             Questionnaire

4.3.2     Summary of Findings Related to the Influences           72

             of Aural Authentic Materials

4.3.3     Results for Secondary Research Question#1:               73

             Learning Strategy Use

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